Forensics and Anti-Forensics of a NAND Flash Memory: From a Copy-Back Program Perspective

Na Young Ahn, Dong Hoon Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes a safe copy-back program operation in a NAND flash memory, which is targeting digital forensics for a variety of reasons. Due to the background management operation of the NAND flash memory, the original data is highly likely to remain without truly being deleted. We have carefully investigated the possibility of data exposure due to a copy-back program operation, among, frequently used management operations as such data exposure increases the possibility of privacy invasion. We propose a safe copy-back program operation that lowers the possibility of privacy invasion. And we additionally introduce various techniques for solving the reliability problem of adjacent cells caused by the proposed copy-back program operation. For example, when deleting the original data in a copy-back program operation, overwriting is performed to minimize program disturbance. Also, after acquiring the victim cell information of the adjacent cell before proceeding with overwriting, program prohibition is determined on each page buffer based on the victim cell information. Our research results are meaningful for forensics and anti-forensics issues to be raised regarding NAND flash memories. We look forward to the development of NAND flash memories that guarantee privacy in subsequent studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9328103
Pages (from-to)14130-14137
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.


  • Forensic
  • NAND flash memory
  • anti-forensic
  • copy-back program
  • deletion operation
  • hacker
  • overwriting
  • privacy
  • program disturbance
  • program prohibition
  • victim cell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Forensics and Anti-Forensics of a NAND Flash Memory: From a Copy-Back Program Perspective'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this