Formation of Zintl Ions and Their Configurational Change during Sodiation in Na-Sn Battery

Yong Seok Choi, Young Woon Byeon, Jae Pyoung Ahn, Jae Chul Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Despite their large theoretical storage capability, Na-Sn batteries exhibit poor round-trip energy efficiencies as compared to Li-Si batteries. Here, we report the results of a comprehensive study to elucidate how and why Na-Sn batteries exhibit such a low energy efficiency. As a convincing evidence for this behavior, we observed that the resistivity of the Sn anode increased by 8 orders of magnitude during in situ sodiation experiments, which is attributed to the formation of electrically resistive Zintl ions in the sodiated Sn. Continual sodiation induced the development of residual stresses at the Sn anode and caused the distortion of Zintl ions from their ideal configuration. This distortion caused a change in the electronic structure, resulting in the increased resistivity of the sodiated Sn. Our findings offer some solutions that can be used to improve the energy efficiency of Na-Sn batteries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)679-686
Number of pages8
JournalNano Letters
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Feb 8

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 American Chemical Society.


  • FEM
  • Na-ion battery
  • Zintl ion
  • ab initio simulation
  • in situ sodiation experiment
  • resistivity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering


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