Recently, three-dimensional (3D) nano-processing technology that can increase design freedom and space efficiency of devices has been being rapidly developed, and is highly expected to provide a key path for the development of next-generation optical devices. This technology has shown a high possibility of success in realizing the future devices, but still are facing many challenges in the popularization and practical application. In particular, the ability of quickly, precisely, and stably fabricating complex 3D nanostructures composed of many individual elements is strongly demanded. In recent years, the so-called four-dimensional (4D) nanofabrication technology is attracting attention. The 4D nanofabrication is achieved by applying an external force to manufactured two-dimensional nanostructures, inducing deformation in time, and then precisely transforming them into 3D nanostructures. The 4D nanofabrication technology with excellent flexibility, versatility, functionality, and reconfiguration properties provides a new paradigm enabling effectively control the mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of existing materials. In this review, we examine the conventional methods for fabricating 3D nanostructures, and then investigate 4D nanofabrication technology in detail.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was financially supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (Grant Nos. 2019M3E4A1078663, 2020R1A2C2010967), the KIST Institutional Program (Grant No. 2E31021-21-029), Institute for Information and Communications Technology Planning and Evaluation (IITP) Grant (Grant No. 2020-0-00947), and the KU-KIST School Project.
© 2022, The Korean Physical Society.
- 3D nanofabrication
- 4D nanofabrication
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)