Four-dimensional nanofabrication for next-generation optical devices

Moohyuk Kim, Myung Ki Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Recently, three-dimensional (3D) nano-processing technology that can increase design freedom and space efficiency of devices has been being rapidly developed, and is highly expected to provide a key path for the development of next-generation optical devices. This technology has shown a high possibility of success in realizing the future devices, but still are facing many challenges in the popularization and practical application. In particular, the ability of quickly, precisely, and stably fabricating complex 3D nanostructures composed of many individual elements is strongly demanded. In recent years, the so-called four-dimensional (4D) nanofabrication technology is attracting attention. The 4D nanofabrication is achieved by applying an external force to manufactured two-dimensional nanostructures, inducing deformation in time, and then precisely transforming them into 3D nanostructures. The 4D nanofabrication technology with excellent flexibility, versatility, functionality, and reconfiguration properties provides a new paradigm enabling effectively control the mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of existing materials. In this review, we examine the conventional methods for fabricating 3D nanostructures, and then investigate 4D nanofabrication technology in detail.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)516-524
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the Korean Physical Society
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Sept

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was financially supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (Grant Nos. 2019M3E4A1078663, 2020R1A2C2010967), the KIST Institutional Program (Grant No. 2E31021-21-029), Institute for Information and Communications Technology Planning and Evaluation (IITP) Grant (Grant No. 2020-0-00947), and the KU-KIST School Project.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Korean Physical Society.


  • 3D nanofabrication
  • 4D nanofabrication
  • Nano-optics
  • Nanofabrication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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