Full-text chemical identification with improved generalizability and tagging consistency

Hyunjae Kim, Mujeen Sung, Wonjin Yoon, Sungjoon Park, Jaewoo Kang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Chemical identification involves finding chemical entities in text (i.e. named entity recognition) and assigning unique identifiers to the entities (i.e. named entity normalization). While current models are developed and evaluated based on article titles and abstracts, their effectiveness has not been thoroughly verified in full text. In this paper, we identify two limitations of models in tagging full-text articles: (1) low generalizability to unseen mentions and (2) tagging inconsistency. We use simple training and post-processing methods to address the limitations such as transfer learning and mention-wise majority voting. We also present a hybrid model for the normalization task that utilizes the high recall of a neural model while maintaining the high precision of a dictionary model. In the BioCreative VII NLM-Chem track challenge, our best model achieves 86.72 and 78.31 F1 scores in named entity recognition and normalization, significantly outperforming the median (83.73 and 77.49 F1 scores) and taking first place in named entity recognition. In a post-challenge evaluation, we re-implement our model and obtain 84.70 F1 score in the normalization task, outperforming the best score in the challenge by 3.34 F1 score. Database URL: https://github.com/dmis-lab/bc7-chem-id

Original languageEnglish
Article numberbaac074
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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