Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDCs) can induce the differentiation of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells and are therefore candidates for the prevention or treatment of various inflammatory diseases. Galangin, a major component of propolis and Alpinia officinarum, has well-established anti-inflammatory effects, but its ability to induce a tolerogenic state in DCs has not been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the effects of galangin on DC differentiation and immune responses. In particular, we compared phenotypic and functional differences between DCs (Gal-DCs) generated by galangin treatment during DC differentiation and bone marrow-derived DCs. Gal-DCs were generated by adding culture medium containing various doses of galangin (1.8–18.5 µM) on 3 and 6 day. Upon lipopolysaccharide (100 ng/mL) stimulation for 24 h, Gal-DCs generated with 7.4 µM galangin treatment showed lower levels of CD86 and lower major histocompatibility complex class II antigen-presentation than those of bone marrow-derived DCs. Furthermore, Gal-DCs showed markedly increased programmed death ligand 1 expression and IL-10 production via the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. Interestingly, Gal-DCs co-cultured with allogeneic CD4 T cells exhibited the reduced cell proliferation and differentiation into Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-type cell; instead, Gal-DCs contributed to the induction of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs. Taken together, our data suggest that exposure to galangin during DC differentiation confers tolerogenic properties, efficiently inducing Th cell differentiation to immunosuppressive Tregs. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of galangin on DCs.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea grant funded by Korea government (grant no. 2018M2A2B3A02072069 and NRF-2019R1C1C1002484).
- Immune tolerance
- Regulatory T cells
- Tolerogenic dendritic cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Molecular Biology
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- Clinical Biochemistry