Generalized Difference in Differences With Panel Data and Least Squares Estimator

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14 Citations (Scopus)


With one treated and one untreated periods, difference in differences (DD) requires the untreated response changes to be the same across the treatment and control groups, if the treatment were withheld contrary to the fact. A natural way to check the condition is to backtrack one period and examine the response changes in two pretreatment periods. If the condition does not hold in the pretreatment periods, then a modified DD takes the form of “generalized difference in differences (GDD),” which is a triple difference (TD) with one more time-wise difference than DD. GDD generalizes DD with a weaker identification condition in the sense that a time-constant, but not necessarily zero, time/selection effect is allowed. One more time-wise differencing (quadruple difference [QD]) than GDD allows for the time/selection effect even to change over time, which makes it possible to test for the GDD identification condition. Simple panel least squares estimators (LSEs)/tests for DD and GDD are proposed and an empirical illustration is presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)134-157
Number of pages24
JournalSociological Methods and Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Feb 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This research has been supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant, funded by the Korean Government (NRF-2014S1A2A2027803).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015, © The Author(s) 2015.


  • difference in differences
  • generalized difference in differences
  • panel data
  • quadruple difference
  • triple difference

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science


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