Genome-wide identification and characterization of the lettuce GASA family in response to abiotic stresses

Sun Ho Lee, Jin Seok Yoon, Woo Joo Jung, Dae Yeon Kim, Yong Weon Seo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Lettuce is one of the most extensively farmed vegetables in the world, and it prefers cool growing conditions. High temperatures promote premature bolt formation, reducing quality and yield. The gibberellic acid-stimulated Arabidopsis (GASA) family genes play critical roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, the biological functions of GASA proteins in lettuce have yet to be thoroughly investigated. Results: Using genome-wide analysis, 20 GASAs were identified in lettuce including, three groups of LsGASA proteins based on the phylogenetic analysis. Except for one, all GASA proteins included a conserved GASA domain with 12 cysteine residues. Cis-element analysis showed that LsGASAs were closely associated with light, phytohormones, and stress resistance. Five segmental and three tandem duplication events were observed in the LsGASA family based on duplication analysis. GASA synteny analysis among lettuce, Arabidopsis, tobacco, and rice revealed that LsGASA5 is highly collinear with all species. Six of the 20 LsGASA showed increased expression patterns at specific time points in the shoot apical meristem when subjected to heat stress. According to gene expression analysis, the majority of GASA were highly expressed in flowers compared to other organs, and six GASA exhibited highly increased expression levels in response to NaCl, abscisic acid, and gibberellin treatment. Furthermore, LsGASA proteins are predominantly found in the plasma membrane and/or the cytosol. Conclusions: This study provides a comprehensive characterization of LsGASA genes for their diversity and biological functions. Moreover, our results will be useful for further studies on the function of lettuce GASA in abiotic stress- and heat-induced bolting signaling.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106
JournalBMC Plant Biology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Dec

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We would like to thank the plant materials provided by the National Agrobiodiversity Center, Korea.

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2021R1I1A1A01048945) and partly by a grant from the Ojeong Plant Breeding Research Center of Korea University, Republic of Korea.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).


  • Expression analysis
  • Heat stress
  • Lactuca sativa L
  • Shoot apical meristem
  • cis-element

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science


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