Background: Ginsenoside compound-Mc1 (Mc1) is a member of the deglycosylated ginsenosides obtained from ginseng extract. Although several ginsenosides have a cardioprotective effect, this has not been demonstrated in ginsenoside Mc1. Methods: We treated H9c2 cells with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ginsenoside Mc1 to evaluate the antioxidant effects of Mc1. The levels of antioxidant molecules, catalase, and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) were measured, and cell viability was determined using the Bcl2-associated X protein (Bax):B-cell lymphoma-extra large ratio, a cytotoxicity assay, and flow cytometry. We generated mice with high-fat diet (HFD)–induced obesity using ginsenoside Mc1 and assessed their heart tissues to evaluate the antioxidant effect and the fibrosis-reducing capability of ginsenoside Mc1. Results: Ginsenoside Mc1 significantly increased the level of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the H9c2 cells. The expression levels of catalase and SOD2 increased significantly after treatment with ginsenoside Mc1, resulting in a decrease in the production of H2O2-mediated reactive oxygen species. Treatment with ginsenoside Mc1 also significantly reduced the H2O2-mediated elevation of the Bax:Bcl2 ratio and the number of DNA-damaged cells, which was significantly attenuated by treatment with an AMPK inhibitor. Consistent with the in vitro data, ginsenoside Mc1 upregulated the levels of catalase and SOD2 and decreased the Bax:B-cell lymphoma-extra large ratio and caspase-3 activity in the heart tissues of HFD-induced obese mice, resulting in reduced collagen deposition. Conclusion: Ginsenoside Mc1 decreases oxidative stress and increases cell viability in H9c2 cells and the heart tissue isolated from HFD-fed mice via an AMPK-dependent mechanism, suggesting its potential as a novel therapeutic agent for oxidative stress–related cardiac diseases.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF- 2018R1D1A1B07047587 ) and by a Korea University grant ( K1710551 ).
- AMP-activated protein kinases
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
- Complementary and alternative medicine