Malicious activities on the Internet are one of the most dangerous threats to Internet users and organizations. Malicious software controlled remotely is addressed as one of the most critical methods for executing the malicious activities. Since blocking domain names for command and control (C&C) of the malwares by analyzing their Domain Name System (DNS) activities has been the most effective and practical countermeasure, attackers attempt to hide their malwares by adopting several evasion techniques, such as client sub-grouping and domain flux on DNS activities. A common feature of the recently developed evasion techniques is the utilization of multiple domain names for render malware DNS activities temporally and spatially more complex. In contrast to analyzing the DNS activities for a single domain name, detecting the malicious DNS activities for multiple domain names is not a simple task. The DNS activities of malware that uses multiple domain names, termed multi-domain malware, are sparser and less synchronized with respect to space and time. In this paper, we introduce a malware activity detection mechanism, GMAD: Graph-based Malware Activity Detection that utilizes a sequence of DNS queries in order to achieve robustness against evasion techniques. GMAD uses a graph termed Domain Name Travel Graph which expresses DNS query sequences to detect infected clients and malicious domain names. In addition to detecting malware C&C domain names, GMAD detects malicious DNS activities such as blacklist checking and fake DNS querying. To detect malicious domain names utilized to malware activities, GMAD applies domain name clustering using the graph structure and determines malicious clusters by referring to public blacklists. Through experiments with four sets of DNS traffic captured in two ISP networks in the U.S. and South Korea, we show that GMAD detected thousands of malicious domain names that had neither been blacklisted nor detected through group activity of DNS clients. In a detection accuracy evaluation, GMAD showed an accuracy rate higher than 99% on average, with a higher than 90% precision and lower than 0.5% false positive rate. It is shown that the proposed method is effective for detecting multi-domain malware activities irrespective of evasion techniques.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Public Welfare & Safety Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning ( 2012M3A2A1051118 ).
- Graph clustering
- Malware domain name
- Sequential correlation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Networks and Communications