Graphite-metal composite electrodes with a tunable work function for use in optoelectronic devices

Arul Varman Kesavan, Atul C. Khot, Tukaram D. Dongale, Kyung Rock Son, Praveen C. Ramamurthy, Tae Geun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In electronic devices, the work function (WF) of the electrodes must be tailored to achieve a well-aligned Ohmic or Schottky contact. Low- and high-WF electrodes are typically used to ensure effective injection/extraction of electrons and holes. In this study, composite graphite-aluminum (G : Al) and graphite-nickel (G : Ni) electrodes were deposited on a glass substrate using electron beam evaporation, and ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy was conducted to evaluate the WF of the fabricated electrodes. The WF of the G : Al electrode was successfully tuned from 4.24 ± 0.047 eV to 5.10 ± 0.031 eV (a range of ∼0.9 eV) by increasing the graphite content. Similarly, the WF of the G : Ni composite electrode was tuned from 4.67 ± 0.041 eV to 5.11 ± 0.031 eV (a range of ∼0.4 eV). The shift in the WF in the composite graphite-metal electrodes could be explained by the formation of metal-metal (or semiconductor) junctions. The optical reflectance, sheet resistance, and morphology were also able to be tuned. The sheet resistance of the G : Al and G : Ni electrodes varied from 2.28 ± 0.03 Ω sq−1 to 80.05 ± 9.1 Ω sq−1 and from 4.92 ± 0.04 Ω sq−1 to 166.30 ± 4.1 Ω sq−1, respectively, while the total tunable reflectance was 53.77% and 45.70%, respectively. This research demonstrates a novel exploratory technique for tailoring the WF of hybrid graphite materials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15358-15366
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry C
Issue number41
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Sept 21

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Chemistry


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