Harmony search optimization: Application to pipe network design

Z. W. Geem, J. H. Kim, G. V. Loganathan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

344 Citations (Scopus)


The Pipe network design problem is considered by choosing least-cost diameter pipes to satisfy flow demands and minimum head restrictions. Harmony and innovation are brought together as in music to devise a search pattern that can identify a large number of local optima in pipe network design. Improvization is brought in by varying the pitch rate parameter, and harmony is maintained by accumulating improving solutions. Because in pipe networks optimization by its very nature removes any redundancy, a minimum power loss criterion is introduced to enhance feasibility. The efficacy of the algorithm is demonstrated by solving a test nonlinear program and a pipe network problem from the literature to global optimum. Several near-optimal solutions are reported.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)125-133
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Modelling and Simulation
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Harmony search
  • Hydraulic simulator
  • Minimum power loss
  • Optimization
  • Pipe networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • General Engineering
  • General Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Modelling and Simulation


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