An oxide/metal/oxide multilayer electrode is employed to improve the mechanical flexibility as well as power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaics. However, its performance needs to be further improved to provide a higher conversion efficiency and better environmental compatibility with curved indoor electronics. In this study, ZnO/Ag/ZnO nanomesh electrodes are incorporated into the inverted non-fullerene organic photovoltaics to enhance the efficiency under indoor and outdoor lighting illumination in a flexible mode. The opto-electrical properties of the perforated ZnO/Ag/ZnO nanomesh electrode with different hole sizes are compared with those of the planar ZnO/Ag/ZnO and indium tin oxide electrodes. The micro-cavity effect and haze effect, which plays a crucial role in determining the performance of the organic photovoltaics, are directly related to the hole diameter. Despite higher transmittance of indium tin oxide, organic photovoltaics using ZnO/Ag/ZnO nanomesh electrodes with a hole diameter of 350 nm exhibits an average conversion efficiency of 15.7% under a 1000 lux light-emitting diode lamp; this efficiency is 45.3% and 27.6% greater than those of organic photovoltaics using indium tin oxide and planar ZnO/Ag/ZnO electrodes, respectively. Furthermore, all ZnO/Ag/ZnO nanomesh-based organic photovoltaics show much higher mechanical flexible properties than those of the planar ZnO/Ag/ZnO-based organic photovoltaics.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) , Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (Grant numbers: 2016R1A3B1908249 , 2019R1A6A1A11044070 ).
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.
- Flexible electrode
- Indoor organic photovoltaics
- Micro-cavity effect
- ZnO-Ag-ZnO Nanomesh
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering