Haze-enhanced ZnO/Ag/ZnO nanomesh electrode for flexible, high-efficiency indoor organic photovoltaics

Ashkan Vakilipour Takaloo, Ho Jin Lee, Tae Hoon Park, Tukaram D. Dongale, Young Un Kim, Dong Hoon Choi, Tae Geun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


An oxide/metal/oxide multilayer electrode is employed to improve the mechanical flexibility as well as power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaics. However, its performance needs to be further improved to provide a higher conversion efficiency and better environmental compatibility with curved indoor electronics. In this study, ZnO/Ag/ZnO nanomesh electrodes are incorporated into the inverted non-fullerene organic photovoltaics to enhance the efficiency under indoor and outdoor lighting illumination in a flexible mode. The opto-electrical properties of the perforated ZnO/Ag/ZnO nanomesh electrode with different hole sizes are compared with those of the planar ZnO/Ag/ZnO and indium tin oxide electrodes. The micro-cavity effect and haze effect, which plays a crucial role in determining the performance of the organic photovoltaics, are directly related to the hole diameter. Despite higher transmittance of indium tin oxide, organic photovoltaics using ZnO/Ag/ZnO nanomesh electrodes with a hole diameter of 350 nm exhibits an average conversion efficiency of 15.7% under a 1000 lux light-emitting diode lamp; this efficiency is 45.3% and 27.6% greater than those of organic photovoltaics using indium tin oxide and planar ZnO/Ag/ZnO electrodes, respectively. Furthermore, all ZnO/Ag/ZnO nanomesh-based organic photovoltaics show much higher mechanical flexible properties than those of the planar ZnO/Ag/ZnO-based organic photovoltaics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number230589
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec 15

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) , Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (Grant numbers: 2016R1A3B1908249 , 2019R1A6A1A11044070 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.


  • Flexible electrode
  • Haze
  • Indoor organic photovoltaics
  • Micro-cavity effect
  • Transmittance
  • ZnO-Ag-ZnO Nanomesh

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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