Heating performance characteristics of stack coolant source heat pump using R744 for fuel cell electric vehicles

Ho Seong Lee, Jong Phil Won, Choong Won Cho, Yong Chan Kim, Moo Yeon Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


The objective of this study is to investigate the performance characteristics of a stack coolant source heat pump using R744 with a stack coolant heat source for fuel cell electric vehicles under cold weather conditions. Electric heaters are currently used in fuel cell electric vehicles, and the high levels of energy consumption involved lead to lower fuel efficiency and a reduction in the vehicle's driving range. In order to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell electric vehicles in this study, a heat pump using R744 as a refrigerant and making use of wasted heat from the stacks is developed to cover the heating capacity. This heat pump is tested and performance optimized for stack coolant heat recovery under the compressor speeds, air temperatures, and flow rates of the interior heat exchanger, as well as the coolant flow rates of the CO 2-coolant heat exchanger. In addition, the heating capacity of the tested system was sufficiently attained over 5. 0 kW at the coolant flow rate of 5. 0 l/min under extremely cold weather conditions of -20°C.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2065-2071
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Mechanical Science and Technology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jul

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the grant "Development of carbon dioxide mobile A/C system (10005246)" from the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning.


  • Coefficient of performance (COP)
  • Fuel cell
  • Heat pump
  • R744

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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