Heavy metal immobilization in soil near abandoned mines using eggshell waste and rapeseed residue

Sang Soo Lee, Jung Eun Lim, Samy A.M.Abd El-Azeem, Bongsu Choi, Sang Eun Oh, Deok Hyun Moon, Yong Sik Ok

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

108 Citations (Scopus)


Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils has received great concern due to potential risk to human health. Cadmium and Pb are largely released from abandoned or closed mines in Korea, resulting in soil contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of eggshell waste in combination with the conventional nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium fertilizer (also known as NPK fertilizer) or the rapeseed residue on immobilization of Cd and Pb in the rice paddy soil. Cadmium and Pb extractabilities were tested using two methods of (1) the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) and (2) the 0. 1 M HCl extraction. With 5 % eggshell addition, the values of soil pH were increased from 6. 33 and 6. 51 to 8. 15 and 8. 04 in combination with NPK fertilizer and rapeseed residue, respectively, compared to no eggshell addition. The increase in soil pH may contribute to heavy metal immobilization by altering heavy metals into more stable in soils. Concentrations of TCLP-extracted Cd and Pb were reduced by up to 67. 9 and 93. 2 % by addition of 5 % eggshell compared to control. For 0. 1 M HCl extraction method, the concentration of 0. 1 M HCl-Cd in soils treated with NPK fertilizer and rapeseed residue was significantly reduced by up to 34. 01 and 46. 1 %, respectively, with 5 % eggshell addition compared to control. A decrease in acid phosphatase activity and an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity at high soil pH were also observed. Combined application of eggshell waste and rapeseed residue can be cost-effective and beneficial way to remediate the soil contaminated with heavy metals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1719-1726
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Abandoned mines
  • Eggshell waste
  • Enzyme activity
  • Heavy metals
  • Rapeseed residue
  • TCLP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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