Hepatolithiasis and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: A review

Hyo Jung Kim, Jae Seon Kim, Moon Kyung Joo, Beom Jae Lee, Ji Hoon Kim, Jong Eun Yeon, Jong Jae Park, Kwan Soo Byun, Young Tae Bak

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

93 Citations (Scopus)


Although the incidence of hepatolithiasis is decreasing as the pattern of gallstone disease changes in Asia, the prevalence of hepatolithiasis is persistently high, especially in Far Eastern countries. Hepatolithiasis is an established risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), and chronic proliferative inflammation may be involved in biliary carcinogenesis and in inducing the upregulation of cell-proliferating factors. With the use of advanced imaging modalities, there has been much improvement in the management of hepatolithiasis and the diagnosis of hepatolithiasis-associated CCA (HLCCA). However, there are many problems in managing the strictures in hepatolithiasis and differentiating them from infiltrating types of CCA. Surgical resection is recommended in cases of single lobe hepatolithiasis with atrophy, uncontrolled stricture, symptom duration of more than 10 years, and long history of biliaryenteric anastomosis. Even after resection, patients should be followed with caution for development of HL-CCA, because HL-CCA is an independent prognostic factor for survival. It is not yet clear whether hepatic resection can reduce the occurrence of subsequent HL-CCA. Furthermore, there are no consistent findings regarding prediction of subsequent HL-CCA in patients with hepatolithiasis. In the management of hepatolithiasis, important factors are the reduction of recurrence of cholangitis and suspicion of unrecognized HL-CCA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13418-13431
Number of pages14
JournalWorld journal of gastroenterology
Issue number48
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Dec 28
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

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© 2015 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Cholangiocarcinoma
  • Hepatolithiasis
  • Intrahepatic
  • Management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


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