Hierarchically Interpenetrated and Reentrant Microcellular Frameworks for Stretchable Lithium Metal Batteries

Yoojoo An, Nayeon Kim, Soo Yeong Hong, Arum Jung, Eunji Kim, Yonghee Lee, Jinhan Cho, Bongjun Yeom, Jeong Gon Son

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


With the rapid development of human-friendly wearable devices, energy storage components are required to have skin-like stretchability or free-form to fit closer and more comfortably to the human body. This study introduces a hierarchically interpenetrated reentrant microcellular structure combined with 2D cellular graphene/MXene/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 3D cellular melamine foam. This composite structure works as a stretchable framework of lithium metal composite electrodes to provide stretchability for lithium metal electrodes, which are promising as next-generation energy storage systems. The interpenetrated but independent cellular structures successfully obtain stable structural deformability from the nonconductive and deformable melamine foam, while at the same time, high electrical conductivity, lithiophilicity, and mechanical stability of the graphene/CNT/MXene network serve as a lithium deposition support during the electrodeposition of lithium. The reentrant structure is fabricated by radial compressing the hierarchical cellular structures to take advantage of the structural stretchability of the accordion-like reentrant frameworks. The lithium-deposited composite electrodes exhibit much lower overpotential during Li stripping and plating than lithium metal foil anodes and show stable electrochemical performances under 30% of mechanical strain. The reentrant microcellular electrodes offer great potential for advanced designs of lithium metal electrodes for stretchable batteries with high energy density.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2307542
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Apr 25

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Small published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • graphene/CNT/MXene composite
  • hierarchically interpenetrated microcellular framework
  • reentrant framework
  • stretchable battery
  • stretchable lithium metal battery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • General Chemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • General Materials Science
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)


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