High performance of protonic ceramic fuel cells with 1-μm-thick electrolytes fabricated by inkjet printing

Yoon Seong Kim, Wanhyuk Chang, Heon Jun Jeong, Keun Hee Kim, Hyun Soo Park, Joon Hyung Shim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Protonic ceramic fuel cells (PCFCs) have attracted considerable research attention owing to their high ionic conductivity and low activation energy that enables their operation at intermediate temperatures (≤600 °C). However, a lack of appropriate manufacturing technologies has limited the expected progress of their commercialization. Inkjet printing, an additive manufacturing technology that produces high-quality thin-film layers under non-vacuum conditions, may be instrumental in the practical fabrication of thin-film PCFCs. In this study, a PCFC based on an inkjet-printed BaZr0.2Ce0.6YZ0.1Yb0.1O3–δ electrolyte layer was successfully fabricated and optimized. First, a printable ink with fluid properties suitable for inkjet printing was synthesized. The synthesized ink was used to fabricate an optimized 1.2-μm-thick electrolyte layer in a PCFC employing a drop-on-demand approach. The inkjet-printed electrolyte PCFC achieved an impressive performance of 577 mW cm–2 and exhibited an area-specific ohmic resistance of 0.072 Ω cm2 at 500 °C, which is the lowest value ever reported for a PCFC. A low degradation rate of 0.0004 V h–1 was determined by durability experiments, indicating that inkjet printing technology can possibly contribute to the commercialization of high-performance PCFCs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103590
JournalAdditive Manufacturing
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jun 5

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning ( KETEP ) grant funded by the Korea government (MOTIE) ( 20213030030040 ). This research was supported by the program of Future Hydrogen Original Technology Development ( 2021M3I3A1084842 ), through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Korean government. (Ministry of Science and ICT(MSIT)). Also, this work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MSIT) (No. NRF-2019R1A2C2003054 ). This work was partly supported by LG Electronics(LGE) (No. C2023007188 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier B.V.


  • Ceramic additive manufacturing
  • Drop-on-demand approach
  • Inkjet printing
  • Protonic ceramic fuel cells
  • Thin-film electrolyte

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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