High-Reproducibility Layer-by-Layer Non-Fullerene Organic Photovoltaics with 19.18% Efficiency Enabled by Vacuum-Assisted Molecular Drift Treatment

Yongchao Xie, Chunyu Zhou, Xiaoling Ma, Sang Young Jeong, Han Young Woo, Fulong Huang, Yiyi Yang, Haomiao Yu, Jinpeng Li, Fujun Zhang, Kai Wang, Xixiang Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The thin film deposition engineering of layer-by-layer (LbL) non-fullerene organic solar cells (OSCs) favors vertical phase distributions of donor:acceptor (D:A), effectively boosting the power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, previous deposition strategies mainly aimed at optimizing the morphology of LbL films, and paid limited attention to the reproducibility of device performance. To achieve high device performance and maintain reproducibility, a strategy for hierarchical morphology manipulation in LbL OSCs is developed. A series of LbL devices are fabricated by introducing vacuum-assisted molecular drift treatment (VMDT) to the donor or acceptor layer individually or simultaneously to elucidate the functionalities of this treatment. Essentially, the VMDT provides an extended drift driving force to manipulate the donor and acceptor molecules, resulting in a well-defined vertical phase distribution and ordered molecular packing. These enhancements facilitate improvement in the D:A interface area and charge transport channel, ultimately contributing to impressive PCEs of 19.18% from 18.27% in the LbL devices. More importantly, using VMDT overcomes the notorious batch-dependent and heat treatment degradation issues of OSCs, leading to excellent batch-to-batch reproducibility and enhanced stability of the devices. This reported method provides a promising strategy available for industrial and laboratory use to controllably manipulate the morphology of LbL OSCs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2400013
JournalAdvanced Energy Materials
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Mar 15

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • layer-by-layer
  • non-fullerene
  • organic solar cells
  • vacuum-assisted molecular drift

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Materials Science


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