High-throughput compositional mapping of triple-cation tin–lead perovskites for high-efficiency solar cells

Rajendra Kumar Gunasekaran, Jina Jung, Sung Woong Yang, Jungchul Yun, Yeonghun Yun, Devthade Vidyasagar, Won Chang Choi, Chang Lyoul Lee, Jun Hong Noh, Dong Hoe Kim, Sangwook Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Mixed tin–lead perovskites suffer from structural instability and rapid tin oxidation; thus, the investigation of their optimal composition ranges is important to address these inherent weaknesses. The critical role of triple cations in mixed Sn–Pb iodides is studied by performing a wide range of compositional screenings over mechanochemically synthesized bulk and solution-processed thin films. A ternary phase map of FA (Sn0.6Pb0.4)I3, MA(Sn0.6Pb0.4)I3, and Cs(Sn0.6Pb0.4)I3 is formed, and a promising composition window of (FA0.6−xMA0.4Csx)Sn0.6Pb0.4I3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) is demonstrated through phase, photoluminescence, and stability evaluations. Solar cell performance and chemical stability across the targeted compositional space are investigated, and FA0.55MA0.4Cs0.05Sn0.6Pb0.4I3 with strain-relaxed lattices, reduced defect densities, and improved oxidation stability is demonstrated. The inverted perovskite solar cells with the optimal composition demonstrate a power conversion efficiency of over 22% with an open-circuit voltage of 0.867 V, which corresponds to voltage loss of 0.363 V, promising for the development of narrow-bandgap perovskite solar cells.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12393
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Apr

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Korea Electric Power Corporation, Grant/Award Number: R20XO02‐1; National Research Foundation of Korea, Grant/Award Number: NRF‐2019R1A2C1084010 Funding information

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT (NRF‐2019R1A2C1084010), and the Korea Electric Power Corporation (Grant number: R20XO02‐1).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. InfoMat published by UESTC and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.


  • compositional engineering
  • mixed tin–lead iodides
  • narrow-bandgap perovskites
  • perovskite solar cells
  • strain relaxation
  • ternary phase mapping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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