High-throughput patterning of photonic structures with tunable periodicity

Thomas J. Kempa, D. Kwabena Bediako, Sun Kyung Kim, Hong Gyu Park, Daniel G. Nocera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


A patterning method termed "RIPPLE" (reactive interface patterning promoted by lithographic electrochemistry) is applied to the fabrication of arrays of dielectric and metallic optical elements. This method uses cyclic voltammetry to impart patterns onto the working electrode of a standard three-electrode electrochemical setup. Using this technique and a template stripping process, periodic arrays of Ag circular Bragg gratings are patterned in a high-throughput fashion over large substrate areas. By varying the scan rate of the cyclically applied voltage ramps, the periodicity of the gratings can be tuned in situ over micrometer and submicrometer length scales. Characterization of the periodic arrays of periodic gratings identified point-like and annular scattering modes at different planes above the structured surface. Facile, reliable, and rapid patterning techniques like RIPPLE may enable the high-throughput and low-cost fabrication of photonic elements and metasurfaces for energy conversion and sensing applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5309-5313
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Apr 28

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.


  • Electrochemistry
  • Nanofabrication
  • Nanopattern
  • Photonics
  • Silicon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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