Highly efficient flexible organic photovoltaics using quasi-amorphous ZnO/Ag/ZnO transparent electrodes for indoor applications

Byeong Ryong Lee, Ji Soo Goo, Yong Woon Kim, Young Jun You, Hyeok Kim, Sang Kwon Lee, Jae Won Shim, Tae Geun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


We report the indoor performance of flexible organic photovoltaic devices utilizing quasi-amorphous ZnO/Ag/ZnO as the transparent conducting electrode. A ZnO/Ag/ZnO electrode with specific thickness values of 40/9/50 nm provides excellent transparent conducting electrode properties with transmittances up to 92% in the visible region, a sheet resistance of 4.8 Ω/sq, and a root-mean squared surface roughness value of 2.1 nm. In addition, the micro-cavity effect and quasi-amorphous structural properties of the ZnO/Ag/ZnO electrode allow further enhanced light absorption and mechanical stability, respectively. Poly (3-hexylthiophene):indene-C60 bisadduct photoactive layer-based inverted organic photovoltaics with the ZnO/Ag/ZnO (40/9/50 nm) electrode yield an averaged power-conversion efficiency of 12.3% under a light-emitting diode lamp with a luminance of 500 lux, which is 20% greater than the power-conversion efficiency value of the reference organic photovoltaics with an indium tin oxide electrode. Furthermore, the same organic photovoltaics on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates exhibit excellent mechanical stability (i.e., 92% of the initial power-conversion efficiency value is maintained even after 400 bending cycles with a bending radius of 9.55 mm), with averaged power-conversion efficiency values of 10.2% under the 500-lux light-emitting diode.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-69
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Mar 31


  • Flexible
  • Indoor light conditions
  • Micro-cavity effect
  • Organic photovoltaic devices
  • ZnO/Ag/ZnO transparent conducting electrode

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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