Highly Efficient Ultra-Thin EML Blue PHOLEDs with an External Light-Extraction Diffuser

Shin Woo Kang, Eun Jeong Bae, Young Wook Park, Byeong Kwon Ju

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In this study, various diffusers are applied to highly efficient ultra-thin emission layer (EML) structure-based blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) to improve the electroluminescence (EL) characteristics and viewing angle. To achieve highly efficient blue PHOLEDs, the EL characteristics of ultra-thin EML PHOLEDs with the various diffusers having different structures of pattern–shape (hemisphere/sphere), size (4~75 μm), distribution (surface/embedded), and packing (close-packed/random) were systematically analyzed. The diffusers showed different enhancements in the overall EL characteristics of efficiencies, viewing angle, and others. The EL characteristics showed apparent dependency on their structure. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) was enhanced mainly by following the orders of pattern, size, and shape. Following the pattern size, the EQE enhancement gradually increased; the largest-sized diffuser with a 75 μm closed-packed hemisphere (diffuser-1) showed a 1.47-fold EQE improvement, which was the highest. Meanwhile, the diffuser with a ~7 μm random embedded sphere with a low density (diffuser 5) showed the lowest 1.02-fold-improved EQE. The reference device with ultra-thin EML structure-based blue PHOLEDs showed a maximum EQE of 16.6%, and the device with diffuser 1 achieved a maximum EQE of 24.3% with a 5.1% wider viewing angle compared to the reference device without a diffuser. For the in-depth analysis, the viewing angle profile of the ultra-thin EML PHOLED device and fluorescent green OLEDs were compared. As a result, the efficiency enhancement characteristics of the diffusers show a difference in the viewing angle profile. Finally, the application of the diffuser successfully demonstrated that the EL efficiency and viewing angle could be selectively improved. Additionally, we found that it was possible to realize a wide viewing angle and achieve considerable EQE enhancement by further investigations using high-density and large-sized embedded structures of light-extraction film.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2357
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Aug

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. 2020R1C1C1013567) and supported by the “Regional Innovation Strategy (RIS)” through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education (MOE) (2021RIS-004).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • FIrpic
  • blue OLEDs
  • diffuser
  • embedded
  • hemisphere
  • light extraction
  • organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)
  • phosphorescent
  • sphere
  • ultra-thin EML
  • undoped
  • viewing angle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Materials Science


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