BACKGROUND: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) continues to increase worldwide. Multiple factors, including diet, loss of the intestinal barrier function, and imbalance of the immune system can cause IBD. A balanced diet is important for maintaining a healthy bowel and preventing IBD from occurring. The effects of probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri-fermented Maillard reaction products (MRPs) prepared by reacting whey protein with galactose on anti-inflammation and intestinal homeostasis were investigated in this study, which compared MPRs and probiotics separately. RESULTS: In an animal colitis model induced by 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), FWG administration alleviated colon length loss and maintained intestinal immune system homeostasis as reflected by down-regulated interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α output, and metallopeptidase-9, and epithelial barrier balance as reflected by up-regulated occludin, E-cadherin, and zonula occludens-1 production in the colon. Furthermore, the expression of splenic cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 was up-regulated in the FWG-treated mice in a comparable amount to the control group to ensure the balance of immune responses. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the use of FWG protects the intestines from colitis caused by DSS and maintains immune balance. FWG increased antioxidant enzyme activity, increased intestinal permeability, and regulated the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the intestines and spleen. Continued intake of FWG can alleviate IBD symptoms through the preservation of mucosal immune responses, epithelial junction and homeostasis through the regulated splenic cytokines.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (iPET).
This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (iPET). The Korea University Grant (K1706241) and School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology for BK21 PLUS, Korea University. The authors thank the Institute of Biomedical Science & Food Safety, CJ-Korea University Food Safety Hall (Seoul, South Korea) for providing the equipment and facilities.
© 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
- fermented Maillard reaction products
- immune system
- inflammatory bowel disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Nutrition and Dietetics