Human Probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Improve Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Induced Inflammatory Phenotypes in Human Skin

Kwang Soo Lee, Yunsik Kim, Jin Hee Lee, Suji Shon, Aram Kim, An Vuong Quynh Pham, Chungho Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Yoon Keun Kim, Eun Gyung Cho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), a probiotic, provide various health benefits. We recently isolated a new Lactobacillus paracasei strain with strong anti-inflammatory effects under lipopolysaccharide-induced conditions and proposed a new mode of action—augmenting the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway for anti-inflammatory functions in host cells. The beneficial effects of the L. paracasei strains on the skin have been described; however, the effects of L. paracasei-derived extracellular vesicles (LpEVs) on the skin are poorly understood. Herein, we investigated whether LpEVs can improve inflammation-mediated skin phenotypes by determining their effects on primary human skin cells and a three-dimensional (3D) full-thickness human skin equivalent under tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-challenged inflammatory conditions. LpEVs were efficiently taken up by the human skin cells and were much less cytotoxic to host cells than bacterial lysates. Furthermore, low LpEV concentrations efficiently restored TNF-α-induced cellular phenotypes, resulting in increased cell proliferation and collagen synthesis, but decreased inflammatory factor levels (matrix metalloproteinase 1, interleukin 6, and interleukin 8) in the human dermal fibroblasts, which was comparable to that of retinoic acid, a representative antiaging compound. The beneficial effects of LpEVs were validated in a 3D full-thickness human skin equivalent model. LpEV treatment remarkably restored the TNF-α-induced epidermal malformation, abnormal proliferation of keratinocytes in the basal layer, and reduction in dermal collagen synthesis. Additionally, LpEVs penetrated and reached the deepest dermal layer within 24 h when overlaid on top of a 3D full-thickness human skin equivalent. Furthermore, they possessed superior antioxidant capacity compared with the human cell-derived EVs. Taken together, the anti-inflammatory probiotic LpEVs can be attractive antiaging and antioxidant substances for improving inflammation-induced skin phenotypes and disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2789
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Dec

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • Lactobacillus paracasei
  • anti-inflammation
  • antiaging
  • antioxidant
  • extracellular vesicle
  • probiotic
  • three-dimensional full-thickness skin equivalent
  • tumor necrosis factor-α

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology


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