Hybrid single-phase immersion cooling structure for battery thermal management under fast-charging conditions

Hongseok Choi, Hyoseong Lee, Jeebeom Kim, Hoseong Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Immersion cooling technology shows the potential for high-energy–density battery thermal management under extreme charging/discharging conditions. In this study, a hybrid immersion cooling structure is proposed for overcoming challenges of conventional indirect liquid cooling methods. A simulation model for the hybrid immersion cooling design is developed based on experiments. The performance of the proposed design is investigated with variations in key design parameters, such as the flow directions, gaps between the batteries, pass partitions, and heat transfer materials. Ultimately, a hybrid immersion structure with one pass partition and graphite fins shows the best performance regarding the overall weight and temperature uniformity. This hybrid structure reduces the pressure drop and power consumption by 45.4% and 61.0%, respectively, thereby reaching a preferred battery temperature condition relative to a baseline structure under a 3C charging condition. In addition, the hybrid immersion structure provides a 6.7 °C lower maximum temperature and 3.0 K lower temperature difference relative to those of a conventional structure with a nearly identical weight. This structure can also reduce the battery temperature effectively under thermal abuse conditions; thus, it can be regarded as more reliable in terms of safety.

Original languageEnglish
Article number117053
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jul 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd


  • Battery thermal management system
  • Cooling structure
  • Dielectric fluid
  • Graphite
  • Immersion cooling
  • Single-phase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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