Ice-lithographic fabrication of concave microwells and a microfluidic network

Joong Yull Park, Chang Mo Hwang, Sang Hoon Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Citations (Scopus)


We describe a novel method to produce concave microwells utilizing solid-liquid phase change. This method, named 'ice-lithography', does not require any lithographic processes and consists of a few simple steps that yield multiple concave microwells. We demonstrated that the shape and size of the microwells can be controlled by varying substrates and vapor-collection time. Patterned wells with sizes in the range of 10μm to several millimeters in diameter could be produced. Additionally, we fabricated a uniformly aligned concave microwell pattern and a microfluidic network. Ice-lithography has potential biological and biomedical applications in areas such as the fabrication of cell docking devices and microbioreactors as well as the formation of uniformly sized embryoid bodies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)129-133
Number of pages5
JournalBiomedical Microdevices
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgements This study was supported by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) grant funded by the Korea government (MOST) (No. R0A-2007-000-20086-0) and a grant from the Korea Health 21 R&D Project, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (0405-ER01-0304-0001).


  • 3D microstructure
  • Concave microwell
  • Ice lithography
  • PDMS
  • Water mold

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Biology


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