Identifying high-risk factors and mitigation strategies for acrylamide formation in air-fried lotus root chips: Impact of cooking parameters, including temperature, time, presoaking, and seasoning

Hee Won Lee, Chung Hun Baek, Yongzhe Ma, Jihyun Lee, Bo Kyung Moon, Kwang Won Lee, Mun Yhung Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Abstract: This study was conducted to identify high-risk factors and mitigation strategies for acrylamide formation in air-fried lotus root chips by studying the impact of various cooking parameters, including temperature, time, presoaking, and pre-seasoning treatments. The temperature and time had a surprisingly high impact on acrylamide formation. The chips prepared at high temperatures with longer cooking times contained an extremely high acrylamide content, reaching 12,786 ng/g (e.g., 170°C/19 min). A particularly concerning discovery was that the chips with extremely high acrylamide content (up to 17 times higher than the EU benchmark level for potato chips) did not appear overcooked or taste burnt. Higher cooking temperatures required shorter cooking times to properly cook lotus root chips for consumption. A high temperature with a short cooking time (170°C/13 min) greatly benefited acrylamide reduction compared to low temperature with a long cooking time (150°C/19 min). Presoaking in a 0.1% acetic acid solution and pre-seasoning with 1% salt reduced acrylamide levels by 61% and 47%, respectively. However, presoaking in water, vinegar solution, and citric acid solution did not significantly decrease the acrylamide content in the chips. Furthermore, some seasonings significantly increased acrylamide levels (up to 7.4 times higher). For the first time, these findings underscore the high risks associated with air-frying lotus root chips without considering these factors. This study also provides proper air-frying parameters and pretreatment strategies for minimizing acrylamide formation in air-fried lotus chips.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1473-1484
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Food Science
Volume89
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Mar

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Institute of Food Technologists.

Keywords

  • LC–MS/MS
  • acrylamide
  • air-frying conditions
  • lotus root

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science

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