Immersive authoring of Tangible Augmented Reality content: A user study

Gun A. Lee, Gerard J. Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


Immersive authoring refers to the style of programming or developing content from within the targetexecutable environment. Immersive authoring is important for fields such as augmented reality (AR) in which interaction usability and user perception of the target content must be checked first hand, in situ. In addition, the interaction efficiency and usability of the authoring tools itself is equally important forease of authoring. In this paper, we propose design principles and describe an implementation of animmersive authoring system for AR. More importantly, we present a formal user study demonstrating its benefits and weaknesses. In particular, our results demonstrate that, compared to using the traditional 2D desktop development method, immersive authoring gained significant efficiency in specifying spatial arrangements and behavior tasks, a major component of AR content authoring. However, it was not so successful for abstract tasks such as logical programming. Based on this result, we suggest that a comprehensive AR authoring tool should include such immersive authoring functionality to help, particularly non-technical media artists, create effective contents based on the characteristics of the underlying media and interaction style.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-79
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Visual Languages and Computing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Apr

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was in part supported by the “Teukjung Gicho” program of the Korea Science Foundation (Grant no. R01-2006-000-11142-0).

Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Augmented reality
  • Immersive authoring
  • Interaction design
  • Tangible interface
  • User study

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications


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