Immobilization of lead in contaminated firing range soil using biochar

Deok Hyun Moon, Jae Woo Park, Yoon Young Chang, Yong Sik Ok, Sang Soo Lee, Mahtab Ahmad, Agamemnon Koutsospyros, Jeong Hun Park, Kitae Baek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

119 Citations (Scopus)


Soybean stover-derived biochar was used to immobilize lead (Pb) in military firing range soil at a mass application rate of 0 to 20 wt.% and a curing period of 7 days. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. The mechanism responsible for Pb immobilization in military firing range soil was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy analyses. The treatment results showed that TCLP Pb leachability decreased with increasing biochar content. A reduction of over 90 % in Pb leachability was achieved upon treatment with 20 wt.% soybean stover-derived biochar. SEM-EDX, elemental dot mapping and XAFS results in conjunction with TCLP leachability revealed that effective Pb immobilization was probably associated with the pozzolanic reaction products, chloropyromorphite and Pb-phosphate. The results of this study demonstrated that soybean stover-derived biochar was effective in immobilizing Pb in contaminated firing range soil.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8464-8471
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Dec
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments This study was supported by the Republic of Korea Ministry of Environment as "Green Remediation Research Center for Organic–inorganic Combined Contamination (The GAIA Project-2012000550001)." This study was also supported by the Republic of Korea Ministry of Environment as The GAIA (Geo-Advanced Innovative Action) Project (no. 173-111-040).


  • Biochar
  • Firing range soil
  • Immobilization
  • Pb
  • Soybean

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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