Immune-enhancing effects of β-lactoglobulin glycated with lactose following in vitro digestion on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mice

Su Hyun Chun, Kwang Won Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


β-Lactoglobulin (β-LG) is a major milk protein, making up more than 53% of the total whey proteins, and is seen as a valuable ingredient in food processing because of its high essential amino acid content and diverse functional applications. The Maillard reaction can occur during the storage and processing of food and generate various beneficial effects, including anti-allergenicity, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. The addition of an β-LG-lactose conjugate (LGL) produced by the Maillard reaction was shown to have a strong immune-enhancing effect, increasing both nitric oxide generation and cytokine expression through activation of RAW 264.7 cells, even after in vitro digestion. Furthermore, daily LGL administration resulted in the upregulation of several immune markers in a cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressive mouse model, indicating that this treatment stimulates multiple immune cells, including macrophages, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes, enhancing the proliferation and activation of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Taken together, these findings indicate that consuming LGL on a regular basis can improve immunity by increasing the natural production of various immune cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)623-636
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jan

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MEST; no. 2017R1A2B4012182) and the School of Life Science and Biotechnology for BK21 PLUS at Korea University. The authors thank the Korea University-CJ Food Safety Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea) for providing the equipment and facilities. All data and analyses in the current study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. The authors have not stated any conflicts of interest.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 American Dairy Science Association


  • Maillard reaction
  • beta-lactoglobulin
  • cyclophosphamide
  • immunomodulatory
  • in vitro digestion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics


Dive into the research topics of 'Immune-enhancing effects of β-lactoglobulin glycated with lactose following in vitro digestion on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mice'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this