Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have recently been isolated from different plants. Plant-de-rived EVs have been proposed as potent therapeutics and drug-delivery nanoplatforms for deliver-ing biomolecules, including proteins, RNAs, DNAs, and lipids. Herein, Petasites japonicus-derived EVs (PJ-EVs) were isolated through a series of centrifugation steps and characterized using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Immunomodulatory effects of PJ-EVs were assessed using dendritic cells (DCs). PJ-EVs exhibited a spherical morphology with an average size of 122.6 nm. They induced the maturation of DCs via an increase in the expression of surface mole-cules (CD80, CD86, MHC-I, and MHC-II), production of Th1-polarizing cytokines (TNF-α and IL-12p70), and antigen-presenting ability; however, they reduced the antigen-uptake ability. Further-more, maturation of DCs induced by PJ-EVs was dependent on the activation and phosphorylation of MAPK and NF-κB signal pathways. Notably, PJ-EV-treated DCs strongly induced the proliferation and differentiation of naïve T cells toward Th1-type T cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells along with robust secretion of IFN-γ and IL-2. In conclusion, our study indicates that PJ-EVs can be potent immunostimulatory candidates with an ability of strongly inducing the maturation of DCs.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea under Grants NRF-2019R1C1C1002484, and Nuclear R&D Program of Ministry of Science and ICT.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Dendritic cells
- Extracellular vesicles
- Petasites japonicus
- T cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry