Improved statistical fluctuation analysis for twin-field quantum key distribution

Jooyoun Park, Jonghyun Lee, Jun Heo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The decoy state scheme is the most widely studied quantum key distribution protocol to detect existence of eavesdropping. Twin-field quantum key distribution (TF-QKD) is a promising protocol for realizing secret key sharing over long distances. However, the secret key rate becomes relatively low considering the finite-size effect. In this study, the statistical fluctuation analysis of the four-intensity decoy-state TF-QKD system proposed in a recent study (Zhang et al. in Phys Rev A 95:012333, 2017) is considered, and its performance is compared with the results of the Gaussian approximation and Chernoff bound methods. Numerical simulations show that the suggested method shows a considerable improvement in both the key generation rate and transmission distance over the Chernoff bound method under actual experimental environment. We find that the scheme increases secret key rate 1.04–4.06 times and transmission distances 10–18 km farther. We also present optimized parameters for Gaussian, Chernoff, and our scheme.

Original languageEnglish
Article number127
JournalQuantum Information Processing
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Apr

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT), Korea, under the ITRC (Information Technology Research Center) support program (IITP-2020-2015-0-00385) supervised by the IITP (Institute for information and communications Technology Planning and Evaluation). This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. 2019R1A2C2010061).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • Decoy state
  • Finite-size effect
  • Quantum key distribution
  • Twin-field QKD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Signal Processing
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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