In situ sprayed NIR-responsive, analgesic black phosphorus-based gel for diabetic ulcer treatment

Jiang Ouyang, Xiaoyuan Ji, Xingcai Zhang, Chan Feng, Zhongmin Tang, Na Kong, Angel Xie, Junqing Wang, Xinbing Sui, Liu Deng, Younian Liu, Jong Seung Kim, Yihai Cao, Wei Tao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

255 Citations (Scopus)


The treatment of diabetic ulcer (DU) remains a major clinical challenge due to the complex wound-healing milieu that features chronic wounds, impaired angiogenesis, persistent pain, bacterial infection, and exacerbated inflammation. A strategy that effectively targets all these issues has proven elusive. Herein, we use a smart black phosphorus (BP)-based gel with the characteristics of rapid formation and near-infrared light (NIR) responsiveness to address these problems. The in situ sprayed BP-based gel could act as 1) a temporary, biomimetic “skin” to temporarily shield the tissue from the external environment and accelerate chronic wound healing by promoting the proliferation of endothelial cells, vascularization, and angiogenesis and 2) a drug “reservoir” to store therapeutic BP and pain-relieving lidocaine hydrochloride (Lid). Within several minutes of NIR laser irradiation, the BP-based gel generates local heat to accelerate microcirculatory blood flow, mediate the release of loaded Lid for “on-demand” pain relief, eliminate bacteria, and reduce inflammation. Therefore, our study not only introduces a concept of in situ sprayed, NIR-responsive pain relief gel targeting the challenging wound-healing milieu in diabetes but also provides a proof-of-concept application of BP-based materials in DU treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)28667-28677
Number of pages11
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number46
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Nov 17

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.


  • Analgesic
  • Black phosphorus
  • Diabetic ulcer
  • Fibrin gel
  • Wound healing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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