In Vitro Generation of Luminal Vasculature in Liver Organoids: From Basic Vascular Biology to Vascularized Hepatic Organoids

Hyo Jin Kim, Gyeongmin Kim, Kyun Yoo Chi, Jong Hoon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Liver organoids have gained much attention in recent years for their potential applications to liver disease modeling and pharmacologic drug screening. Liver organoids produced in vitro reflect some aspects of the in vivo physiological and pathological conditions of the liver. However, the generation of liver organoids with perfusable luminal vasculature remains a major challenge, hindering precise and effective modeling of liver diseases. Furthermore, vascularization is required for large organoids or assembloids to closely mimic the complexity of tissue architecture without cell death in the core region. A few studies have successfully generated liver organoids with endothelial cell networks, but most of these vascular networks produced luminal structures after being transplanted into tissues of host animals. Therefore, formation of luminal vasculature is an unmet need to overcome the limitation of liver organoids as an in vitro model investigating different acute and chronic liver diseases. Here, we provide an overview of the unique features of hepatic vasculature under pathophysiological conditions and summarize the biochemical and biophysical cues that drive vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in vitro.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Stem Cells
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant (No. 2018M3A9H1019 504), the Technology Innovation Program (No. 20009350, Development of the standard metrology for organoid based drug metabolism and toxicity testing) of the Korea Evaluation Institute of Industrial Technology funded by the Ministry of Science & ICT (MSIT), Republic of Korea, and a Korea University Grant (No. K2106861).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the Korean Society for Stem Cell Research


  • Blood vessel
  • Liver
  • Organoid
  • Stem cell
  • Vascularization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology


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