Incident angle-dependent effective surface impedance (ZS) of electromagnetic crystal (EMXT)

Hao Xin, M. Kim, J. B. Hacker, J. A. Higgins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Electromagnetic crystal (EMXT) surfaces are modeled with effective surface impedance method. Effects of oblique incidence are studied using a technique similar to the waveguide simulator method for analyzing infinite phased array. Numerical results are compared with an analytical model. EMXT samples are characterized by open-ended waveguide reflection measurements using different aperture sizes (WR28 and WR22). The measurements confirm the angular dependence of the EMXT surface impedance. A rectangular waveguide with EMXT sidewalls is modeled by using the angle-dependent effective surface impedance as the sidewall boundary condition. Excellent agreement between this model and full-wave finite-element simulation of the entire waveguide structure is obtained.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)437-439
Number of pages3
JournalIEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Sept


  • Electromagnetic crystal (EMXT) surfaces
  • Infinite phased array
  • Surface impedance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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