Influence of Particle Velocity of Copper on Emitter Contact by Cold-Spray Method

Byungjun Kang, Kyung Dong Lee, Jong gun Lee, Jae Wook Choi, Sam S. Yoon, Yoonmook Kang, Hae seok Lee, Donghwan Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, we investigated cold-sprayed copper as a front contact for crystalline silicon solar cells. Copper powder was deposited on a monocrystalline silicon wafer with variation of the particle velocity during deposition. The particle velocity was varied by varying the heating temperature from 250 to 400 °C using a gas pressure of 0.45 MPa. The particle velocities were calculated using empirical equations, and were found to increase with an increase in the carrier gas temperature. Grid patterns were formed on a phosphorus-doped n-type emitter of a p-type silicon substrate. The electrode thickness increased with increasing particle velocity. The electrical properties of the grids were evaluated using the transfer length method. The specific contact resistance of the n-type emitter was in the range of 2.6-26.4 mΩ-cm2. Damage to the p-n junction was investigated via minority carrier lifetime measurement of the substrate. The copper-silicon interface was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. The contact properties were affected by the interface conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)465-472
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Thermal Spray Technology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Feb 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the International Collaborative Energy Technology R&D Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), by a grant from the financial resource of the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea (No. 20138520011170).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015, ASM International.


  • cold-spray
  • contact resistance
  • copper
  • particle velocity
  • phosphorus emitter
  • solar cell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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