Inhalation exposure to chloramine T induces DNA damage and inflammation in lung of Sprague-Dawley rats

Ilseob Shim, Gyun Baek Seo, Eunha Oh, Mimi Lee, Jung Taek Kwon, Donggeun Sul, Byung Woo Lee, Byung ll Yoon, Pilje Kim, Kyunghee Choi, Hyun Mi Kim

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7 Citations (Scopus)


Chloramine T has been widely used as a disinfectant in many areas such as kitchens, laboratories and hospitals. It has been also used as a biocide in air fresheners and deodorants which are consumer products; however, little is known about its toxic effects by inhalation route. This study was performed to identify the subacute inhalation toxicity of chloramine T under whole-body inhalation exposure conditions. Male and female groups of rats were exposed to chloramine T at concentrations of 0.2, 0.9 and 4.0 mg/m3 for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week during 4 weeks. After 28-day repeated inhalation of chloramine T, there were dose-dependently significant DNA damage in the rat tissues evaluated and inflammation was histopathologically noted around the terminal airways of the lung in both genders. As a result of the expression of three types of antioxidant enzymes (SOD-2, GPx-1, PRX-1) in rat's lung after exposure, there was no significant change of all antioxidant enzymes in the male and female rats. The results showed that no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was 0.2 mg/m3 in male rats and 0.9 mg/m3 in female rats under the present experimental cond.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)937-946
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Toxicological Sciences
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Antioxidant enzyme
  • Chloramine t
  • Comet assay
  • Inhalation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology


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