Inhibiting bacterial biofilm formation by stimulating c-di-GMP regulation using citrus peel extract from Jeju Island

Han Shin Kim, So Young Ham, Hwa Soo Ryoo, Do Hyung Kim, Eun Tae Yun, Hee Deung Park, Jeong Hoon Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Biofilms consist of single or multiple species of bacteria embedded in extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), which affect the increase in antibiotic resistance by restricting the transport of antibiotics to the bacterial cells. An alternative approach to treatment with antimicrobial agents is using biofilm inhibitors that regulate biofilm development without inhibiting bacterial growth. In this study, we found that citrus peel extract from Jeju Island (CPEJ) can inhibit bacterial biofilm formation. According to the results, CPEJ concentration-dependently reduces biofilm formation without affecting bacterial growth. Additionally, CPEJ decreased the production of extracellular polymeric substances but increased bacterial swarming motility. These results led to the hypothesis that CPEJ can reduce intracellular bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) concentration. The results showed that CPEJ significantly reduced the c-di-GMP level through increased phosphodiesterase activity. Altogether, these findings suggest that CPEJ as a biofilm inhibitor has new potential for pharmacological (e.g. drug and medication) and industrial applications (e.g. ship hulls, water pipes, and membrane processes biofouling control).

Original languageEnglish
Article number162180
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Publication statusPublished - 2023 May 10

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier B.V.


  • Biofilm inhibition
  • Citrus peel extract from Jeju Island
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14
  • c-di-GMP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution


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