Urban particulate matter (UPM) is atmospheric particulate samples obtained from industrialized urban areas. It is known that pulmonary fibrosis can result directly or indirectly from particulate matter. In this study, the protective effect of chebulic acid (CA) against UPM-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the pulmonary alveolar epithelial (PAE) cells were investigated. Our findings revealed that PAE cells were changed from the epithelial phenotype to mesenchymal one after exposure to UPM. Furthermore, co-treatment and post-treatment of CA inhibited EMT progression. Especially the key epithelial marker, E-cadherin, was down-regulated by UPM and recovered by CA. Also, gelatin zymogram showed that the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 was decreased by co-treatment and post-treatment of CA. Further investigation revealed that CA attenuated UPM-stimulated PAE cells invasion ability. These data showed that UPM promoted PAE cells invasion, reactive oxygen species-mediated extracellular matrix degradation and CA reduced the potential health risks associated with UPM.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments This work was supported by a Korea University Grant (K1420071). This research was also supported by School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology for BK21 PLUS, Korea University. The authors thank the Institute of Biomedical Science & Food Safety, Korea University Food Safety Hall, for providing the equipment and facilities.
© 2019 The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.
- Chebulic acid
- Epithelial-mesenchymal transition
- Lung fibrosis
- Urban particulate matter
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science