6,8-Diprenylorobol is a flavonoid compound extracted from Cudrania tricuspidata. It has various biological functions, such as inhibiting melanin synthesis and inducting cell death in cancer-ous cells. In addition, Cudrania tricuspidata is known to be effective in female diseases, and previous studies have shown anticancer effects in cervical cancer, a female reproductive disease. Outside of that, Cudrania tricuspidata has various physiological effects. However, the effect of 6,8-diprenylorobol is not well known in other benign and chronic diseases, even in endometriosis, which commonly arises in the female reproductive tract. In the present study, we determined the inhibitory effects of 6,8-diprenylorobol on the growth of endometriosis VK2/E6E7 and End1/E6E7 cells. Results indicated that 6,8-diprenylorobol suppressed cellular proliferation and increased the disruption of the cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species, and Ca2+ homeostasis in both endometriosis cells. However, the proliferation of normal stromal cells isolated from endometrial tissue was not altered by 6,8-diprenylorobol. The change in Ca2+ levels was estimated in fluo-4-or rhod-2-stained VK2/E6E7 and End1/E6E7 cells after the treatment of the intracellular calcium regulators 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and ruthenium red (RUR) with 6,8-diprenylorobol. A combination of 6,8-diprenylorobol with each regulator decreased the calcium accumulation in endometriosis cells. Furthermore, Western blot analysis indicated that 6,8-diprenylorobol inactivated AKT pathways, whereas it activated P38 MAPK pathways. In addition, 6,8-diprenylorobol decreased mitochondrial respiration, leading to the reduction in ATP production in VK2/E6E7 and End1/E6E7 cells. Collectively, our results suggested that 6,8-diprenylorobol might be a potential therapeutic agent or adjuvant therapy for the management of endometriosis.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIT) (grant numbers: 2021R1A2C2005841 and 2021R1C1C1009807), and by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (grant number: 2020R1I1A1A01067648).
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Calcium homeostasis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Molecular Biology
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cell Biology