Injectable Ventral Spinal Stimulator Evokes Programmable and Biomimetic Hindlimb Motion

Dingchang Lin, Jung Min Lee, Chonghe Wang, Hong Gyu Park, Charles M. Lieber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Spinal cord neuromodulation can restore partial to complete loss of motor functions associated with neuromotor disease and trauma. Current technologies have made substantial progress but have limitations as dorsal epidural or intraspinal devices that are either remote to ventral motor neurons or subject to surgical intervention in the spinal tissue. Here, we describe a flexible and stretchable spinal stimulator design with nanoscale thickness that can be implanted by minimally invasive injection through a polymeric catheter to target the ventral spinal space of mice. Ventrolaterally implanted devices exhibited substantially lower stimulation threshold currents and more precise recruitment of motor pools than did comparable dorsal epidural implants. Functionally relevant and novel hindlimb movements were achieved via specific stimulation patterns of the electrodes. This approach holds translational potential for improving controllable limb function following spinal cord injury or neuromotor disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6184-6192
Number of pages9
JournalNano Letters
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jul 12

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society.


  • bioelectronics
  • epidural electrical stimulation
  • spinal cord injury
  • spinal interface
  • ventrolateral implantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering


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