Insights into the immune responses of SARS-CoV-2 in relation to COVID-19 vaccines

Heedo Park, Mee Sook Park, Jong Hyeon Seok, Jaehwan You, Jineui Kim, Jeonghun Kim, Man Seong Park

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The three types of approved coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines that have been emergency-use listed (EUL) by the World Health Organization are mRNA vaccines, adenovirus-vectored vaccines, and inactivated vaccines. Canonical vaccine developments usually take years or decades to be completed to commercialization; however, the EUL vaccines being used in the current situation comprise several COVID-19 vaccine candidates applied in studies and clinical settings across the world. The extraordinary circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic have necessitated the emergency authorization of these EUL vaccines, which have been rapidly developed. Although the benefits of the EUL vaccines outweigh their adverse effects, there have been reports of rare but fatal cases directly associated with COVID-19 vaccinations. Thus, a reassessment of the immunological rationale underlying EUL vaccines in relation to COVID-19 caused by SARSCOV-2 virus infection is now required. In this review, we discuss the manifestations of COVID-19, immunologically projected effects of EUL vaccines, reported immune responses, informed issues related to COVID-19 vaccination, and the potential strategies for future vaccine use against antigenic variants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)308-320
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Microbiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Mar

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by a grant from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT, Republic of Korea (grant No. NRF-2017M3A9E4061995).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Microbiological Society of Korea.


  • Ad26.COV2.S
  • BNT162b2
  • COVID-19
  • ChAdOx1 nCoV-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • immune response
  • mRNA-1273
  • vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology


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