The three types of approved coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines that have been emergency-use listed (EUL) by the World Health Organization are mRNA vaccines, adenovirus-vectored vaccines, and inactivated vaccines. Canonical vaccine developments usually take years or decades to be completed to commercialization; however, the EUL vaccines being used in the current situation comprise several COVID-19 vaccine candidates applied in studies and clinical settings across the world. The extraordinary circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic have necessitated the emergency authorization of these EUL vaccines, which have been rapidly developed. Although the benefits of the EUL vaccines outweigh their adverse effects, there have been reports of rare but fatal cases directly associated with COVID-19 vaccinations. Thus, a reassessment of the immunological rationale underlying EUL vaccines in relation to COVID-19 caused by SARSCOV-2 virus infection is now required. In this review, we discuss the manifestations of COVID-19, immunologically projected effects of EUL vaccines, reported immune responses, informed issues related to COVID-19 vaccination, and the potential strategies for future vaccine use against antigenic variants.
- ChAdOx1 nCoV-19
- immune response
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology