Insights into upstream processing of microalgae: A review

Ehsan Daneshvar, Yong Sik Ok, Samad Tavakoli, Binoy Sarkar, Sabry M. Shaheen, Hui Hong, Yongkang Luo, Jörg Rinklebe, Hocheol Song, Amit Bhatnagar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

82 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this review is to provide insights into the upstream processing of microalgae, and to highlight the advantages of each step. This review discusses the most important steps of the upstream processing in microalgae research such as cultivation modes, photobioreactors design, preparation of culture medium, control of environmental factors, supply of microalgae seeds and monitoring of microalgal growth. An extensive list of bioreactors and their working volumes used, elemental composition of some well-known formulated cultivation media, different types of wastewater used for microalgal cultivation and environmental variables studied in microalgae research has been compiled in this review from the vast literature. This review also highlights existing challenges and knowledge gaps in upstream processing of microalgae and future research needs are suggested.

Original languageEnglish
Article number124870
JournalBioresource technology
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jun

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd


  • Bioreactors
  • Culture media
  • Environmental factors
  • Microalgal cultivation
  • Upstream processing
  • Wastewater treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Waste Management and Disposal


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