The role of a glucagon/cAMP-dependent protein kinase- inducible coactivator PGC-1α signaling pathway is well characterized in hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, an opposing protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt-inducible corepressor signaling pathway is unknown. A previous report has demonstrated that small heterodimer partner-interacting leucine zipper protein (SMILE) regulates the nuclear receptors and transcriptional factors that control hepatic gluconeogenesis. Here, we show that hepatic SMILE expression was induced by feeding in normal mice but not in db/db and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Interestingly, SMILE expression was induced by insulin in mouse primary hepatocyte and liver. Hepatic SMILE expression was not altered by refeeding in liver-specific insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) or PKB β-deficient (PKBβ-/-) mice. At the molecular level, SMILE inhibited hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-mediated transcriptional activity via direct competition with PGC-1α. Moreover, ablation of SMILE augmented gluconeogenesis and increased blood glucose levels in mice. Conversely, overexpression of SMILE reduced hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression and ameliorated hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in db/db and HFD-fed mice. Therefore, SMILE is an insulin-inducible corepressor that suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis. Small molecules that enhance SMILE expression would have potential for treating hyperglycemia in diabetes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a National Creative Research Initiatives grant through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) (20110018305) funded by the Korean government (Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning). S.-H.K. is supported by the NRF (grant nos. NRF-2012M3A9B6055345, NRF-2015R1A5A1009024, and NRF-2015R1A2A1A01006687) and Korea University.
© 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism