Intact 2D/3D halide junction perovskite solar cells via solid-phase in-plane growth

Yeoun Woo Jang, Seungmin Lee, Kyung Mun Yeom, Kiwan Jeong, Kwang Choi, Mansoo Choi, Jun Hong Noh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

377 Citations (Scopus)


The solution process has been employed to obtain Ruddlesden–Popper two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) halide perovskite bilayers in perovskite solar cells for improving the efficiency and chemical stability; however, the solution process has limitations in achieving thermal stability and designing a proper local electric field for efficient carrier collection due to the formation of a metastable quasi-2D perovskite. Here we grow a stable and highly crystalline 2D (C4H9NH3)2PbI4 film on top of a 3D film using a solvent-free solid-phase in-plane growth, which could result in an intact 2D/3D heterojunction. An enhanced built-in potential is achieved at the 2D/3D heterojunction with a thick 2D film, resulting in high photovoltage in the device. The intact 2D/3D heterojunction endow the devices with an open-circuit voltage of 1.185 V and a certified steady-state efficiency of 24.35%. The encapsulated device retained 94% of its initial efficiency after 1,056 h under the damp heat test (85 °C/85% relative humidity) and 98% after 1,620 h under full-sun illumination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)63-71
Number of pages9
JournalNature Energy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jan

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (grant nos. NRF-2020R1A2C3009115, NRF-2017M1A2A2087351 (the Technology Development Program to Solve Climate Changes); NRF-2017R1A4A1015022) and the New and Renewable Energy Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) from the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (grant no. 20183010014470). This work was also supported by the Global Frontier R&D Program of the Center for Multiscale Energy Systems funded by the National Research Foundation under the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Korea (grant no. 2012M3A6A7054855). The authors thank S.-j. Park (Korea I.T.S.; XRD instrumental broadening calculation), W.-S. Chae (Korea Basic Science Institute; TRPL mapping) for their help during the course of the study.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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