Interactive influences of demographics on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the demographics-adjusted norms for MMSE in elderly Koreans

Jeong Lan Kim, Joon Hyuk Park, Bong Jo Kim, Moon Doo Kim, Shin Kyum Kim, Yeon Kyung Chi, Tae Hui Kim, Seok Woo Moon, Moon Ho Park, Jae Nam Bae, Jong Inn Woo, Seung Ho Ryu, Jong Chul Yoon, Nam Jin Lee, Dong Young Lee, Dong Woo Lee, Seok Bum Lee, Jung Jae Lee, Chang Uk Lee, Sung Man ChangJi Won Han, Jin Hyeong Jhoo, Changsu Han, Maeng Je Cho, Ki Woong Kim

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    16 Citations (Scopus)


    Background: The influences of demographics, culture, language, and environmental changes on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores are considerable. Methods: Using a sample of 7452 healthy, community-dwelling elderly Koreans, aged 55 to 94 years, who participated in the four ongoing geriatric cohorts in Korea, we investigated demographic influences on MMSE scores and derived normative data for this population. Geropsychiatrists strictly excluded subjects with cognitive disorders according to the protocol of the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet (CERAD-K) Clinical Assessment Battery (CERAD-K-C). Results: Education (standardized β = 0.463), age (standardized β = -0.303), and gender (standardized β = -0.057) had significant effects on MMSE scores (p < 0.001). The score of MMSE increase 0.379 point per 1-year education, decrease 0.188 per 1-year older, and decrease 0.491 in women compared to men. Education explained 30.4% of the scores' total variance, which was much larger than the variances explained by age (8.4%) or gender (0.3%). Accordingly, we present normative data for the MMSE stratified by education (0, 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, and ≥ 13 years), age (60-69, 70-79, and 80-89 years), and gender. Conclusions: We provide contemporary education-, age-, and gender-stratified norms for the MMSE, derived from a large, community-dwelling elderly Korean population sample, which could be useful in evaluating individual MMSE scores.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)642-650
    Number of pages9
    JournalInternational Psychogeriatrics
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2012 Apr


    • Korean
    • age
    • education
    • elders
    • lexical verbal fluency
    • normative data

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Clinical Psychology
    • Gerontology
    • Geriatrics and Gerontology
    • Psychiatry and Mental health


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