Interfacial Defects Change the Correlation between Photoluminescence, Ideality Factor, and Open-Circuit Voltage in Perovskite Solar Cells

Sohyeon Kim, Jun Hyeok Jang, Ziang Wu, Mi Jung Lee, Han Young Woo, Inchan Hwang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


The ideality factor (nid) and photoluminescence (PL) analyses assess charge recombination characteristics in perovskite solar cells (PeSCs). However, their correlations with open-circuit voltage (Voc) are often found to be complicated depending on the recombination types in the devices. Herein, the correlation of nid, PL characteristics and Voc is elucidated depending on the interfacial crystal quality in triple-cation mixed-halide perovskite, Cs0.05(MA0.17FA0.83)0.95Pb(I0.83Br0.17)3, deposited on different hole transport layers (HTLs). In the devices with low quality interfacial crystals, Voc increases together with nid, which originates from the light intensity-dependence of majority carrier at the interface. Meanwhile, a negative correlation between Voc and nid is observed for devices with high quality interfacial crystals. The authors discuss the cases that PL enhancement by the improvement of overall crystal quality can fail to correlate with a Voc increase if interfacial crystal quality becomes worse. The study highlights that interfacial crystal quality evaluation can help to understand charge recombination via nid and PL measurements, and more importantly provide information of which defect engineering between at the interface and in the bulk would be more effective for device optimization.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2101839
Issue number33
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Aug 19

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (2020R1A2C1008607 and 2019R1A6A1A11044070) and the research grant from Kwangwoon University in 2021. S.K. acknowledges the financial support from the Competency Development Program for Industry Specialists of the Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE), operated by Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology (KIAT) (No. P0002397, HRD program for Industrial Convergence of Wearable Smart Devices).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH


  • charge recombination
  • ideality factor
  • open-circuit voltage
  • perovskite solar cells
  • photoluminescence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomaterials
  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science


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