To determine whether intraarticular pretreatment with N-methyl-D-aspartic (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine or memantine currently used in humans has prophylactic analgesia in arthritic pain, we examined the effects of their intraarticular injection before carrageenan injection into the knee joint on pain-related behavior and spinal c-Fos expression in rats. Injection of ketamine (0.2 mg and 1 mg) or memantine (0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, and 1 mg) into the knee joint, but not the abdominal cavity, immediately before carrageenan injection (2%, 40 μL) significantly prevented pain-related behavior. The intraarticular injection of ketamine (1 mg) or memantine (0.2 mg) also suppressed c-Fos expression in the laminae I-II and laminae V-VI at the L3-4 spinal level. Subsequent statistical analyses revealed that the degree of the spinal c-Fos expression was correlated with the extent of the pain-related behavior. These results suggest that peripheral administration of NMDA receptor antagonists has prophylactic analgesic effects in arthritic pain, which might be associated with the decrease of central nociceptive signaling. Because ketamine and memantine are currently used in humans and considered clinically safe, they may have therapeutic value in the treatment of joint pain.
|Number of pages
|Anesthesia and Analgesia
|Published - 2004 Jul
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine