Immunotherapy is revolutionizing the treatment of cancer, and the current immunotherapeutics have remarkably improved the outcomes for some cancer patients. However, we still need answers for patients with immunologically cold tumors that do not benefit from the current immunotherapy treatments. Here, we suggest a novel strategy that is based on using a very old and sophisticated system for cancer immunotherapy, namely “intrinsic cancer vaccination”, which seeks to awaken our own immune system to activate tumor-specific T cells. To do this, we must take advantage of the genetic instability of cancer cells and the expression of cancer cell neoantigens to trigger immunity against cancer cells. It will be necessary to not only enhance the phagocytosis of cancer cells by antigen presenting cells but also induce immunogenic cancer cell death and the subsequent immunogenic clearance, cross-priming and generation of tumor-specific T cells. This strategy will allow us to avoid using known tumor-specific antigens, ex vivo manipulation or adoptive cell therapy; rather, we will efficiently present cancer cell neoantigens to our immune system and propagate the cancer-immunity cycle. This strategy simply follows the natural cycle of cancer-immunity from its very first step, and therefore could be combined with any other treatment modality to yield enhanced efficacy.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) ( 2019R1A2B5B03004360 and 2017R1A3B1023418 ), the KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology Program, and the KIST Institutional Program.
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (2019R1A2B5B03004360 and 2017R1A3B1023418), the KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology Program, and the KIST Institutional Program. The authors declare that there is no competing financial interest.
© 2019 Elsevier B.V.
- Cancer immunotherapy
- Immune checkpoint blockade
- Immunogenic cell death
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science