Investigation of Carburization and Melting Behavior of Fully Reduced LRI and IOS on Coke Substrates

Junwoo Park, Minki Kim, In Kook Suh, Eunju Kim, Joonho Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the course of developing hydrogen-enriched blast furnace ironmaking operation, the carburization and melting behavior of the fully reduced low-reduced iron (LRI) and the iron ore sinter (IOS) on the coke substrate were investigated at 1773 and 1823 K under 40%CO–40%N2–20%H2 gas atmosphere. The LRI sample was not carburized at 1773 K due to the inhibition ash layer on the coke surface; consequently, it was not melted. Although the reduced iron of the LRI sample was melted at 1823 K, it was not carburized due to the prevention of the ash layer. On the other hand, the IOS sample was carburized to be melted at 1773 and 1823 K. The self-fluxing slag cleaned the ash layer on the coke surface, enabling the carburization and melting of the reduced iron. It is concluded that the liquid slag formation accelerated the carburization of the reduced iron, whereas the liquid metal formation did not increase the carburization rate. Due to the difficulty in carburization and melting of LRI, the use of LRI in the hydrogen-enriched blast furnace operation can be limited. Graphical Abstract: (Figure presented.)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1095-1105
Number of pages11
JournalMetals and Materials International
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Apr

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) under exclusive licence to The Korean Institute of Metals and Materials 2023.


  • Carburization
  • Hydrogen-enriched ironmaking process
  • Iron ore sinter
  • Low reduced iron
  • Melting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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